Evaluation of the permeability and in vitro cytotoxicity of functionalized titanate nanotubes on Caco-2 cell line
Keywords:cytotoxicity; permeability; functionalization; titanate nanotubes; magnesium stearate; silane derivatives
Titanate nanotubes (TNTs) are promising vectors for drug delivery due to their unique physicochemical properties such as biocompatibility, mechanical strength, and chemical resistivity. However, considering their strong hydrophilicity, pristine TNTs exert very limited permeability through the intestinal cell layer. The aim of this study was to turn the surface characteristics and thus enhance the permeability of TNTs by functionalization. TNTs were functionalized with trichloro(octyl)silane (TCOS) and magnesium stearate (MgSt). Carbon content and surface free energy of the functionalized TNTs were detected to evaluate the effectiveness of functionalization, by using CHNS analytical and optical contact angle (OCA) measurements, respectively. Caco-2 cell line was applied to test the permeability and the cytotoxicity of the samples. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by using MTT assay. The results revealed that the surface characteristics of TNTs may be adjusted in a wider range with TCOS-TNT than with St, but the samples show higher toxicity. Silane functionalized TNTs may be safe up to 1 mg/ml, while St functionalized TNTs up to 2 mg/ml concentration. The preparation method of MgSt-TNT was also superior from the aspect of environmental safety. The permeability was suitable for samples with moderate hydrophobicity (aqueous contact angle 60-90°).
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APH is published as a diamond open-access journal under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.